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3a) Optimum population may be defined as that population which is neither too small nor too large, but when combined with the available resources and given the level of existing technology secure a maximum return per head



3b)- It leads to over population; An increasing or large population of a country if not timely controlled will lead to over population


– Increase in government expenditure; The more the population of a country increases, the more the government’s expenditure increases


– It may lead to congestion; Increasing population if not controlled will lead to congestion in the area of housing, traffic, schools,etc,


3c) – Family planning; Family planning which involves giving birth to controllable number of children, adopted in a country will help to check of control both growth and over population


– Sex education; Through this, people are taught the implications of involving in any type of sex and how to do it without having unwanted pregnancy


– Public enlightenment; Government can set up public enlightenment committee to enlighten people on the need of population control






State owned enterprises are public companies established by the act of parliament and control by the board of directors in order to produce essential services for the citizens. Some state owned enterprises are owned by the state government é.g 05BC while others are owned by the federal government e.g NPA, NRC etc.






Huge capital outlay :- Public corporations exist because of the huge capital involved.



Welfarism :- Government set up state owned enterprises in order to enhance the well being of the citizens.



Equitable distribution of wealth public corporations are established in order to ensure even distribution of resources.





Inefficient management :- poor management affect the effectiveness of public corporation.



Corruption :- political interference in the management of state owned enterprises promote corruption in the system.



Lack of willingness on the part of staff of public corporations affect the efficiency of the enterprises.





Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.



i) determining the exchange rate among goods;

ii) barter economy also faced the problem of indivisibility i.e. where one party to the exchange has an indivisible item such as sheep;

iii) some goods to be exchanged were not easily portable;



i)as a medium of exchange it breaks transactions into

sale and purchase thus there is no need for double coincidence of wants;

ii) as a unit of account it allows rate of exchange to be easily determined;

iii) modern money has several units and facilities exchange in small and large units





The demand schedule, in economics, is a table of the quantity demanded of a good at different price levels. Given the price level, it is easy to determine the expected quantity demanded.


7b) The law of demand states that the higher the price the lower the quantity demanded and the low the price the higher the quantity demanded



(I) Competitive demand; Demand is said to be competitive when a commodity is wanted to satisfy a want in place of another similar commodity


(Ii) Derived demand; This is a situation in which a commodity is wanted not for its immediate satisfaction of want but because of the demand for another commodity


(Iii) Joint Demand; When two or more commodities are wanted to satisfy one want at the same time


(Iv) Composite demand; Demand is said to be composite when a commodity is wanted to satisfy different wants for instance, palm oil may be demanded for cooking food,manufacturing of soap and pomade





Tax is a compulsory contribution to state revenue, levied by the government on workers’ income and business profits, or added to the co

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